Probabilistic Constellation Shaping: Optical fibers carry light waves.These light waves forms constellations or recognizable patterns that are arranged within the cable.These are created by carrier waves that are interacting with the signal.For fibre optic systems a laser diode (LD) or light-emitting diode (LED) is used.  Ideally these light sources provideRead More →

It is quite simple to understand the differences between a hub switch and a router. HUB: Hub is a connecting device .It contains multiple ports and connects various networking devices at a single point. Hubs broadcast the data received at its port to all the connected ports. Hence,it is notRead More →