UPnP (Universal Plug and Play Protocol) is a zero-configuration networking protocol that allows devices to discover and advertise themselves in the network. Traditional device methods to connect involves installing device drivers in the machine to set them up. But, devices that support Zero conf. networking just need to be pluggedRead More →

Robot framework is a generic test automation Framework. I love hearing songs at work.So the first thing I do is open my browser open gaana.com and PlayAll the AR Rahman tracks. So Lets see how to make life simple by doing this using ROBOT framework. The Selenium Library of RobotRead More →


PPPOE-Point to Point protocol over ethernet is a network layer protocol and is used to encapsulate the PPP frames inside the ethernet frames.It was mainly used to tunnel packets from the DSL network to the IP network and then to rest of internet. PPPoE has two stages the PPPoE discoveryRead More →

CFM-Connectivity Fault managment MEP-Maintenenace End point DOWNMEP-In an  interface , if  CFM Frames passes without processing through the bridge relay entity.Then the interfaces end point should be configured Down MEP. UP MEP:In an interface , if CFM Frames are processed by the bridge relay entity .The the interfaces end points shouldRead More →

IEEE 802.1ag is a standard define by IEEE for OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance). It is an end-to-end protocol for proactive connectivity monitoring and fault verification. EthOAM , CC’s detects link/fabric failure through periodic exchange of messages Loopback identifies the precise location of the fault LinkTrace can trace the pathRead More →

Life in the Time of Refuge is a 10 minute Virtual Reality film shot exclusively with the Nokia OZO camera. It had an initial showing at the United Nations High Commissioners Dialogues in Geneva in the presence of Omar, his father, and the Deputy High Commissioner.The video has interesting features.TheRead More →

Zapping is switching from one channel to another  and the zap latency or zap time is the time interval from which the viewer changes a particular channel to the time when the channel is displayed.These delays while switching from one channel to another occurs in general television and more prominentlyRead More →

Probabilistic Constellation Shaping: Optical fibers carry light waves.These light waves forms constellations or recognizable patterns that are arranged within the cable.These are created by carrier waves that are interacting with the signal.For fibre optic systems a laser diode (LD) or light-emitting diode (LED) is used.  Ideally these light sources provideRead More →

It is quite simple to understand the differences between a hub switch and a router. HUB: Hub is a connecting device .It contains multiple ports and connects various networking devices at a single point. Hubs broadcast the data received at its port to all the connected ports. Hence,it is notRead More →